MSG Is Lastly Getting Its Revenge


Up to date at 1:45 p.m. ET on Might 17, 2023

In March, the World Well being Group issued a dire warning that was additionally utterly apparent: Practically everybody on the planet consumes an excessive amount of salt. And never only a sprinkle an excessive amount of; on common, individuals devour greater than double what’s advisable each single day, elevating the danger of widespread illnesses resembling coronary heart assault and stroke. If governments intervene in such profligate salt consumption, the WHO urged, they might save the lives of seven million individuals by 2030.

Such warnings about salt are so ubiquitous that they’re simple to tune out. In america, salt consumption has been a public-health situation for greater than half a century; since then, the initiatives launched to fight it have been deemed by well being officers as “too quite a few to explain,” however little has modified when it comes to coverage or urge for food. The principle purpose salt has remained an issue is that it’s a significant a part of all processed meals—and, nicely, it makes every little thing scrumptious. Persuading Individuals to scale back their consumption would require a convincing dupe—one thing that might lower down on unhealthy sodium with out making meals any much less tasty.

No excellent dupe exists. However the subsequent neatest thing might be … MSG. Significantly. Final month, the FDA proposed decreasing sodium in sure meals utilizing salt substitutes. One candidate that has analysis behind it’s monosodium glutamate, the white crystalline powder that has lengthy been maligned within the West as an unhealthy meals additive. A standard seasoning in some Asian cuisines, MSG was linked within the late Nineteen Sixties to illnesses—complications, numbness, dizziness, coronary heart palpitations—that grew to become often known as Chinese language Restaurant Syndrome. The well being considerations round MSG have since been debunked, and the FDA considers it suitable for eating. Nevertheless it nonetheless has a nasty rap: Many merchandise are nonetheless proudly marketed as MSG free. Now the chemical could quickly get its revenge. Given the prospect to exchange salt in a few of our meals, it might finally come to signify one thing healthful—even perhaps one thing near wholesome.

The considerations with MSG originated in 1968, when a Chinese language American doctor, writing in The New England Journal of Drugs, described feeling usually unwell after consuming Chinese language meals, which he instructed might be due to MSG. Different researchers rapidly produced research that appeared to substantiate this declare, and MSG grew to become a public-health villain. Within the ’70s, the Chicago Tribune ran the headline “Chinese language Meals Make You Loopy? MSG Is No. 1 Suspect.” All the eye “renewed medical legitimacy [for] various long-held assumptions concerning the surprisingly ‘unique’, ‘weird’ and ‘extreme’ practices related to Chinese language tradition,” the historian Ian Mosby wrote in 2009. That’s to not say that each one signs related to MSG are bunk; individuals may be delicate to MSG—like every meals—and should expertise broad signs resembling complications after consuming it, Amanda Li, a dietary nutritionist on the College of Washington, instructed me. However “analysis has proven no clear proof linking MSG consumption to any critical potential opposed reactions,” she stated.

On the entire, MSG does appear higher than salt itself, contemplating that extreme salt consumption poses so many power well being dangers. A comparatively small quantity of MSG might be used to rescue taste in reduced-salt merchandise with out endangering well being. That is doable partly due to MSG’s molecular make-up. It satisfies the necessity for salt to a sure extent as a result of it comprises sodium (it’s proper there within the title, in any case)—however only a third of the quantity, by weight, that salt does. The remainder of the molecule is product of the amino acid L-glutamate, which registers because the savory, “brothy” taste often known as umami.


MSG isn’t a one-to-one alternative for salt, however that’s what makes it such a promising various. It’s a basic taste enhancer, which means that it will probably amplify the notion of salt and different flavors which can be already in a dish, in addition to add an umami ingredient, Soo-Yeun Lee, a sensory scientist and the director of Washington State College’s College of Meals Science, instructed me. One secret to this impact is that not like salt, which imparts a blast of taste after which rapidly dissipates, MSG stays on the tongue lengthy after meals is swallowed, producing an enduring savory sensation, Lee stated. It could amplify saltiness by growing salivation, letting sodium molecules wash over the tongue extra freely, Aubrey Dunteman, a meals scientist on the College of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, instructed me.

All of this offers MSG the potential to play right into a salt-reduction technique. A 2019 research within the journal Vitamins discovered that substituting MSG (or different related however extra obscure chemical compounds) for among the salt in sure meals might have main impacts: Adults who eat cured meats might lower 40 p.c of their consumption; cheese eaters, 45 p.c. One other research from researchers in Japan discovered that incorporating MSG and different umami substances into widespread Japanese condiments, resembling soy sauce, seasoning salt, and miso paste, might lower salt consumption by as much as 22.3 p.c. Doing the identical in curry-chicken and chili-chicken soups, Malaysian scientists discovered, might be used to scale back the recipes’ salt content material by 32.5 p.c.

Take these findings with a grain of, uh, MSG. Latest research have uniformly discovered that MSG is a secure, promising salt alternative, however many, together with each the Vitamins research and the Japanese one, have been funded not less than partially by Ajinomoto Co.—the corporate that launched the primary business type of the substance—or the Worldwide Glutamate Technical Committee, a commerce group. Lee and Dunteman have additionally acquired funding from Ajinomoto for a few of their MSG work, together with a research exhibiting that the substance might enhance the flavour of reduced-sodium bread. Lee stated she aimed to indicate that MSG substitution for salt is “possible, so if any meals firms need to take that up and take a look at it on their very own methods,” they’ve a foundation for doing so. Her purpose, she added, “is to not promote bread with MSG.” (The paper, together with the 2 others talked about that acquired business funding, have been independently peer-reviewed.)

Clearly, extra impartial analysis is required, however meals firms have loads of incentive to assist discover a higher various to salt. Greater than 70 p.c of Individuals’ salt consumption comes from processed and manufactured meals, and if the FDA decides to crack down on salt consumption, its insurance policies will largely goal the meals business, Lee stated. Already, some producers of canned soup and fish are experimenting with salt substitutes.

Deploying MSG in a sweeping sodium-reduction marketing campaign wouldn’t be simple. MSG is costlier than salt, Dunteman famous. Extra crucially, in lots of meals, salt supplies greater than taste; it will probably additionally act as a preservative and regulate texture by, say, including juiciness to lean meat or stabilizing leavened dough. Of their research on bread, Lee and Dunteman discovered that eradicating an excessive amount of salt lowered chewiness and firmness, even when MSG made up for style. Amongst widespread processed meals, bread is a chief goal for future MSG analysis, as a result of it’s the largest contributor to U.S. sodium consumption—not solely due to its salt content material but additionally due to the sheer quantity of it that Individuals devour. When MSG is used as an alternative of salt to boost taste, “meals can style simply as scrumptious however with out affecting hypertension,” Katherine Burt, a professor of well being promotion and vitamin sciences at Lehman School, whose writing on MSG was not business funded, instructed me. It’s “a good way to make meals thrilling and wholesome.”

MSG will also be used to intentionally scale back salt consumption at house. Including a brand new ingredient to a house pantry may be daunting, however take into account that MSG is already in most kitchens, occurring naturally in umami-rich gadgets resembling Parmesan cheese and mushrooms and added to processed meals resembling Campbell’s Soup and Doritos. Lately, it’s simple sufficient to seek out it on-line or in shops, offered in shakers or packets, very similar to salt. Li recommends that the MSG-curious begin seasoning their meals with a 50–50 combination of MSG and desk salt. When consuming processed meals, select low-sodium variations of merchandise (not “lowered sodium” items, which can not even have low ranges of salt). They’ll probably style horrible, so add MSG in increments till they style good, Lee stated.

We nonetheless have a lot to find out about MSG as a salt substitute, however the largest problem to it taking off is cultural, not scientific. To a sure diploma, tastes are altering: Movie star cooks resembling David Chang champion it, and one extremely acclaimed New York restaurant now serves an MSG martini. However the notion that MSG is unhealthy nonetheless persists, regardless of proof on the contrary. Phrases resembling “sneaky,” “disguised,” and “nasty” are nonetheless used to explain it, and grocery shops resembling Entire Meals and Dealer Joe’s make some extent of mentioning that their meals haven’t any MSG. However, so long as previous misconceptions about MSG persist, they may proceed to hamper the potential for a greater salt substitute. America’s aversion towards MSG could also be meant to advertise higher well being, however at this level, it’d simply be doing exactly the other.